First published: December 10, 2005
Last updated: October 29, 2022

Onisaburo says all animals, plants, and minerals on earth have life. Since they have life, they also have spirit within them. But how the spirit dwells in them varies. For example, spirit lies latent within minerals, dormant within plants, and awake within animals.

Spiritual stones or trees you can find at Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples have their latent or dormant spirit activated.

The spirit of humans and animals is specially termed sei-rei (sophisticated spirit), and it differs from the rei (spirit) of plants and minerals. (See Rei and Seirei)

Similarly, the sei-rei of humans differs from that of animals because the former has the same attributes as the Kami and the latter doesn't. This is why humans are often called "living shrines of the Kami."

The divine qualities humans innately have are ichirei-shikon (one spirit and four souls) and gojoh-no-kairitsu (commandments of the five senses):

  Ichirei-shikon and Gojoh-no-kairitsu
Ichirei-shikon: Ichirei-shikon consists of ichirei (one spirit) and shikon (four souls):
  • ichirei:
    a direct portion of the Kami called (nao-hi ), and
  • shikon:
    • (ara-mitama)
    • (nigi-mitama)
    • (sachi-mitama), and
    • (kushi-mitama)
>> See the figure below

Just like the "hub" of a wheel, nao-hi governs the four souls (akin to "spokes"):

  • Nao-hi:
    as the quintessential soul of the highest good and beauty, nao-hi intuitively judges good and evil and guides a person in the right direction.
  • Ara-mitama (Violent Soul):
    its (essence) is (yu = audacity), and its (features) are (shin = willingness), (ka = resolve), (fun = perseverance), (ben = diligence), and (koku = fortitude).
  • Nigi-mitama (Gentle Soul):
    its (essence) is (shin = affinity), and its (features) are (hei = peace), (shu = discipline), (sei = order), (chi = governance), and (koh = association).
  • Sachi-mitama (Happy Soul):
    its (essence) is (ai = love), and its (features) are (eki = benefit), (zoh = creation), (sei = production), (ka = evolution), and (iku = nurture).
  • Kushi-mitama (Wondrous Spirit):
    its (essence) is (chi = wisdom), and its (features) are (koh = skill), (kan = sensibility), (satsu = observation), (kaku = awareness), and (go = enlightenment).

>> See the figure below

Gojoh-no-kairitsu: The ichirei-shikon are each equppied with an intrinsic commandment to abide by to maximize their respective advantages. These commandments are collectively called gojoh-no-kairitsu (commandments of the five senses):

  • Nao-hi:
    its (commandment) is
    (kaerimiru = to examine oneself).
  • Ara-mitama:
    its (commandment) is
    (hajiru = to feel ashamed).
  • Nigi-mitama:
    its (commandment) is
    (kuiru = to repent).
  • Sachi-mitama:
    its (commandment) is
    (osoreru = to revere).
  • Kushi-mitama:
    its (commandment) is
    (satoru = to awaken to truth).
>> See the figure below

Once the commandments are breached, the ichirei-shikon corrupt into the following states:

  • Nao-hi:
    degenerates into (maga-hi = evil spirit).
  • Ara-mitama:
    degenerates into (soh-kon = hostile soul).
  • Nigi-mitama:
    degenerates into (aku-kon = wicked soul).
  • Sachi-mitama:
    degenerates into (gyaku-kon = rebellious soul).
  • Kushi-mitama:
    degenerates into (kyoh-kon = insane soul).

>> See the figure below

Ichirei-shikon and gojoh-no-kairitsu
(Excerpts: Reikai no Saikokimitsu by Yasuaki Deguchi. KK Longsellers, 1999.)

A useful analogy would be likening the ichirei-shikon and gojoh-no-kairitsu to an automobile. The direct spirit would be the engine, the four souls would be the wheels, and the commandments would be the brakes.

As an aside, Vol. 6 of the Reikai Monogatari describes the Saviour Deity Kamususanowo's four souls as follows:
  • His ara-mitama is Oh-daru-hiko (Bodhidharma)
  • His nigi-mitaka is Oh-yashima-hiko (Buddha)
  • His sachi-mitama is Sukuna-hiko (Jesus), and
  • His kushi-mitama is Kamikuni-wake (Confucius)
Herein lies the basis of Onisaburo's shokyoh-dohkon, the notion of Shinto (not State Shinto), Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity sharing the same roots.

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